Cannabidiol or CBD is an extract of the cannabis or hemp plants, first identified in 1940, one of 85 chemical substances known as cannabinoids. CBD represents 40 % of these extracts and is quite possibly the single most important cannabinoid because of its great therapeutic potential.

Tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, the constituent of cannabis that causes users to get ‘high’, is a totally separate ingredient. It is impossible to get high by smoking or ingesting CBD or by consuming CBD oil products.

CBD interacts with cells in our bodies by activating the cannabinoid receptors in our endocannabinoid system which transmit signals in our bodies causing different physiological effects. CBD and THC are the most abundant cannabinoids found in hemp. They are classed as phytocannabinoids which distinguishes them from our naturally produced endocannabinoids and artificially manufactured ones. CBD assists you in achieving a state of calm and relaxation.

Among its many therapeutic values, discussed in more detail below, is its function as an anti-inflammatory. CBD is safe, well-tolerated and non-toxic. Not only are there no studies showing undesirable effects from CBD, it has, in fact, been shown to mitigate the negative effects of THC.


Cannibinoids 101 


Cannabis: 3 variations of a flowering plant Cannabis Ruderalis, Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Sativa. Used for centuries for fiber oils and medicinal purposes, it is also used as a recreational drug for its THC. Ruderalis has the lowest level of THC, Sativa has higher THC than CBD and Indica has higher CBD than THC.

Hemp: Cannabis grown specifically for fiber, oil and seeds to be turned into wax, resin, cloth, pulp, paper, fuel and hemp oil.

Cannabinoid: Diverse chemical family with soothing and relaxing properties found in cannabis and hemp. There are at least 113 cannabinoids of which THC and CBD are two.

Cannabinoid receptors: Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the Endocannabinoid system which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.

THC: The psychoactive cannabinoid responsible for getting users ‘high’. Strictly regulated in both production and use. Popular illegal recreational drug in the form of marijuana.


  • No recreational applications: does not interfere with psychomotor and psychological functions
  • Combats anxiety and depression
  • Combats tumor and cancer cells: inhibits tumor growth especially in breast cancer, prostate and lung cancers
  • Anti-oxidant: combats neurogenerative disorders
  • Anti-psoriatic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Combats psychosis disorders: research is underway for effects on Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorders and Anxiety Disorders
  • Anti-convulsant so useful in treating Epilepsy
  • Anti-viral
  • Reduces nausea and vomiting
  • Analgesic
  • Combats Diabetes: reduces blood sugar levels
  • Useful in treating Parkinsons, Alzheimers, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cerebral Ischemia and MS.
  • Bone stimulating: increases bone density
  • When added to THC delays motor deterioration and increases long term survival for ALS patients
  • Increases blood flow in the brain bringing needed oxygen as well as nutrients to endangered neurons
  • Acts as a neuroprotectant so combats concussion


  1. Concentration: Volume of CBD
  2. Volume of Hemp Oil
  3. Types of CB Products
  1. How much CBD does the product contain? Be sure the quantity listed on the packaging relates specifically to the amount of CBD and not just hemp oil.
  2. The Hemp Oil volume refers to the hemp oil contained in the product in addition to the CBD. For example, fish oil supplements have an amount of fish oil within which are DHA and EPA. So when shopping for CBD look for that quantity present instead of just hemp oil quantity.
  3. Different CBD Oil products have different benefits and limitations. Some are more CBD potent, some have more pleasing flavours, others are intended to be complementary to food and drink:
    1. CBD Capsules: Dissolvable capsules containing powdered hemp oil with high CBD. Tasteless and odourless, easily portable. Also make it easy to keep track of your dose for monitoring purposes. Packages typically come in 2 to 60 capsules per pack. The disadvantage is in terms of fine-tuning your optimum dose. You are restricted to the capsule’s size which is generous - typically 25 mg. So increasing your dose form 1 to 2 capsules represents a substantial jump in potency. You may decide to augment your dose with another CBD product such as tincture to more precisely define your optimum daily dose.
    2. CBD Tinctures: This is the most versatile and popular form of CBD and most precise in terms of serving size since your dose can be increased or decreased by a single drop. Moreover, they are quicker acting as they are absorbed sublingually. They may also be mixed with a preferred drink. Typical flavours are cinnamon, vanilla and peppermint. If these flavours do not appeal to you, you may prefer the capsules or topical treatments.
    3. CBD Topicals: CBD is readily absorbed through the skin allowing you to target precisely where the dose is needed such as with joint relief. They are, however, slow to work since they rely on being absorbed by the skin and are more costly due to the ingredients that go to make up the lotion, cream or balm.
    4. CBD Oil: CBD oil is the purest and strongest and most concentrated of the CBD products. Again, like the tinctures, it allows for more precise dosing. It has little or no flavouring or sweeteners and comes in a variety of strengths. If you find the flavor unpleasant it can be mixed with foods such as ice cream.
    5. CBD Vaporizers: These function in a fashion similar to e-pens or e-cigarettes. The CBD is heated to a point where it turns to vapour for inhalation. The vaporizer has 2 parts – the vaporizer, which you only buy once, and then cartridge refills. This method is extremely quick acting and safe for the lungs and oral tract. Some people dislike the vaporizer because of its resemblance to cigarettes.
    6. CBD Gum: Inconspicuous usage, CBD gum is simple and easy to use. Flavoured with hemp and mint and natural sweeteners its draw back is that fine tuning your optimum dosage is challenging. Again, you may need to turn to augmenting it with tinctures to obtain your best daily dose.
    7. CBD Edibles: CBD infused edibles include Chocolates, Chews, Gummi Bears, and Suckers ranging in strengths for 10 mg to 60 mg. Ingesting CBD takes longer for the effects to transpire.


It is recommended to start with a low dose and gradually increase the amount taken until you get the effects you want. If your symptoms worsen discontinue use or decrease the dose. One suggestion to try is to take 25 mg twice a day and increase every 3 – 4 weeks by 25 mg until you achieve symptom relief.

Some conditions do call for specific doses as in the following examples:

  • Chronic Pain: 2.5 to 20 mg CBD by mouth
  • Epilepsy: 200 to 300 mg CBD by mouth
  • Sleep Disorders: 40 to 160 mg of CBD by mouth
  • Glaucoma: a single dose of 20 to 40 mg under the tongue. Doses greater than 40 mg may actually increase eye pressure.

When taking CBD oil hold it under the tongue for a few moments prior to swallowing. Next to vaping this is the fastest delivery method - relief within minutes.

As a delivery method, topical application represents slow and uniform absorption.

Ingesting the CBD takes 20 minutes to an hour to be effective depending on how much else you have eaten prior to taking it. It is best taken on an empty stomach for faster effect.

wellspringcbd.com offers the following chart as a starting point for determining a dose with the proviso that “this info is not intended to treat, diagnose or cure any disease or health condition.”

The following chart may help in determining a “STARTING POINT” of how much you might want to take. Again, there is no scientific statement as to what is right, the following is a “best practices” guideline put together for your help:

CBD dosage Chart from wellspringcbd.com



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